Free Cash Flow to Equity (FCFE) Free Cash Flow to Equity (FCFE) Free cash flow to equity (FCFE) is the amount of cash a business generates that is available to be potentially distributed to shareholders. It is calculated as Cash from Operations less Capital Expenditures. This guide will provide a detailed explanation of why it’s important and how to calculate it and several can be calculated using net income Net Income Net Income is a key line item, not only in the income statement, but in all three core financial statements. While it is arrived at through the income statement, the net profit is also used in both the balance sheet and the cash flow statement. as well as using the Free Cash Flow to the Firm (FCFF) formula Free Cash Flow to Firm (FCFF) FCFF, or Free Cash Flow to Firm, is cash flow available to all funding providers in a business. debt holders, preferred stockholders, common shareholders . It is the amount of cash generated by a company that can be potentially distributed to the company’s shareholders. When using an intrinsic valuation method such as the Discounted Cash Flow (DCF) valuation model Discounted Cash Flow DCF Formula The discounted cash flow DCF formula is the sum of the cash flow in each period divided by one plus the discount rate raised to the power of the period #. This article breaks down the DCF formula into simple terms with examples and a video of the calculation. The formula is used to determine the value of a business , an analyst can use FCFE as the business’ cash flow Cash Flow Cash Flow (CF) is the increase or decrease in the amount of money a business, institution, or individual has. In finance, the term is used to describe the amount of cash (currency) that is generated or consumed in a given time period. There are many types of CF generating ability.

The FCFE is different from the free cash flow to the firm (FCFF), which indicates the amount of cash generated to all holders of the company’s securities (both investors and lenders).

### FCFE from Net Income Formula

Free cash flow to equity (FCFE) can be calculated in many ways. To calculate the FCFE from net income, we need to look at the formula and break it down. Here is the formula to calculate FCFE from net income:

##### FCFE = Net Income + Depreciation & Amortization – CapEx – ΔWorking Capital + Net Borrowing

However, FCFE is usually derived by using the free cash flow to the firm (FCFF) formula. To reconcile this, let’s look at how we get FCFE from FCFF. Here is the formula for FCFF:

##### FCFF = Net Income + Depreciation & Amortization – CapEx – ΔWorking Capital + Interest Expense (1 – t)

Where:

**FCFF**– Free Cash Flow to the Firm**CapEx**– Capital Expenditure**ΔWorking Capital**– Net change in the Working Capital**t**– Tax rate

Notice that FCFE and FCFF share very similar terms such as depreciation, capital expenditures, and changes in working capital. The main difference between the FCFF and FCFE is the impact of interest expenses and their tax shields Tax Shield A Tax Shield is an allowable deduction from taxable income that results in a reduction of taxes owed. The value of these shields depends on the effective tax rate for the corporation or individual. Common expenses that are deductible include depreciation, amortization, mortgage payments and interest expense . Therefore, the FCFE can be calculated using the FCFF formula:

##### FCFE = FCFF + Net Borrowing – Interest Expense (1 – t)

### FCFE from Net Income Formula and Financial Statements

An analyst who calculates the free cash flows to equity in a financial model must be able to quickly navigate through a company’s financial statements. The primary reason is that all the inputs required for the calculation of the metric are taken from the financial statements. The guidance below will help you to quickly and correctly incorporate the FCFE from Net Income calculation into a financial model.

**Net Income:**Net income (also referred to as the net earnings) can be found at the bottom of the income statement. In addition, the net income is listed on the cash flow statement in the calculation of the cash flows from operating activities. Every calculation of the cash flow from operating activities starts with the net income. Since many other inputs are taken from the cash flow statement as well, it is recommended to use the financial statement to link the net income to the FCFE calculations.**Depreciation & Amortization:**The depreciation and amortization expense is recorded on the company’s income statement under the Expenses section. The section follows the company’s gross profit. Similar to net income, the depreciation and amortization expense is also listed on the cash flow statement on the Cash from Operations section.**CapEx:**The capital expenditure (CapEx) can be found on the cash flow statement within the Cash from Investing section.**Change in working capital**(can also be denoted as ΔWorking Capital) is calculated in the company’s cash flow statement within the Cash from Operations section.**Net debt:**The net debt amount is also located on the cash flow statement under the Cash from Investing section.

### More Resources

We hope you’ve enjoyed Finance’s explanation of how to calculate FCFE from net income. Finance is the official provider of the Financial Modeling and Valuation Analyst (FMVA)™ FMVA® Certification Join 350,600+ students who work for companies like Amazon, J.P. Morgan, and Ferrari certification program, designed to transform anyone into a world-class financial analyst.

To keep learning and developing your knowledge of financial analysis, we highly recommend the additional Finance resources below:

- Capital Expenditure Capital Expenditure A Capital Expenditure (Capex for short) is the payment with either cash or credit to purchase goods or services that are capitalized on the balance sheet. Put another way, it is an expenditure that is capitalized (i.e., not expensed directly on the income statement) and is considered an "investment". Analysts view Capex
- How the 3 Financial Statements are Linked How the 3 Financial Statements are Linked How are the 3 financial statements linked together? We explain how to link the 3 financial statements together for financial modeling and valuation in Excel. Connections of net income & retained earnings, PP&E, depreciation and amortization, capital expenditures, working capital, financing activities, and cash balance
- Projecting Income Statement Line items Projecting Income Statement Line Items We discuss the different methods of projecting income statement line items. Projecting income statement line items begins with sales revenue, then cost
- Owner’s Equity Owner’s Equity Owner's Equity is defined as the proportion of the total value of a company’s assets that can be claimed by the owners (sole proprietorship or partnership) and by the shareholders (if it is a corporation). It is calculated by deducting all liabilities from the total value of an asset (Equity = Assets – Liabilities).